Cancer is one of the most serious and important diseases of our age. Cancer; It is a chronic disease that can be seen in almost every tissue in the body and results in uncontrolled proliferation of cells due to some genetic-based events. When cancer develops in tissues such as kidney, bladder, urethra that make up the excretory system, and organs such as the prostate gland or testis, which are part of the male reproductive system, the diagnosis and treatment stages are carried out in the urooncology department, which is a sub-branch of the urology department.
What is Urooncology?
Urooncology; It is the name given to the branch in which doctors working in the urology department perform the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up applications of cancer types seen in the tissues of interest of this branch. Basically, the urology department; It is divided into 6 sub-branches. These branches are; pediatric urology (pediatric urology), urogynecology (female urology), andrology and infertility (male reproductive health), endourology (urological hormone systems), neurourology (urological nervous system) and urooncology (urological cancers).
Within the scope of urooncology services, it is aimed to detect cancer cases in the early period in patients. Along with appropriate drug therapy, interventional and surgical treatment methods are applied, and patients are followed up in terms of rehabilitation in the long term.
What are Urological Cancer Types?
Urology basically deals with diseases related to the excretory system consisting of kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra, and the reproductive system consisting of testicles, reproductive canals and prostate gland in men. In this respect, cancers developing in these regions are in the specialty of the urooncology department. Types of urological cancer; It is one of the diseases that can be successfully treated thanks to early diagnosis. Therefore, having accurate and sufficient information about urological cancers is critical for early diagnosis and effective treatment.
The types of cancer frequently seen in urooncology are as follows:
In the kidneys, the process of filtering urine from the blood and removing it from the body through the excretory system is carried out with the help of various epithelial cells. In this sense, cancer cases originating from these cells responsible for kidney function are called “renal cell carcinoma”. Chemicals such as cadmium, benzene, asbestos, which are carcinogenic especially for the kidney; Environmental factors such as smoking and chronic dialysis treatment and some genetic syndromes are among the factors considered as risk factors for kidney cancer.
Common symptoms in kidney cancer cases include abdominal distension, lower back pain, and bloody urine. Although it has a slow course, early diagnosis of this type of cancer is very important for the success of the treatment, as it is likely to spread through the blood through the large vessels.
The bladder, where urine waits for a while after being excreted from the kidneys; It is an organ that is significantly exposed to various chemicals contained in the urine. Among the factors accepted as risk factors in bladder cancer, chemicals such as aromatic amines, nickel, arsenic and cadmium, which are frequently used in the paint industry; smoking and certain medications. In addition, chronic infections in the bladder, a family history of bladder cancer, and some developmental bladder problems also increase the risk of bladder cancer.
This type of cancer; difficulty urinating or a change in urination habits; It causes symptoms such as pain in the lower abdomen or lower back, bloody urination and weakness. If bladder cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, it is possible to clean the tumor tissues through various interventional methods using the closed method. In more advanced cases, the bladder may need to be completely removed.
prostate gland; It is a walnut-sized gland located just below the bladder in men and surrounds the urinary canal (urethra) and transfers the secretion produced during ejaculation to the semen. The prostate gland, which is structurally sensitive to male sex hormones; It tends to increase in volume especially with advanced age. Prostate cancer is mentioned when it spreads to the surrounding tissues due to the uncontrolled proliferation of the cells forming the prostate gland. Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men and is the second most common type of cancer that causes death after lung cancer.
Prostate cancer is generally associated with advanced age and family history. The incidence of prostate cancer increases significantly after the age of 50. Common symptoms in prostate cancer include changes in urination habits, frequent urination, difficulty in urination, dripping urination, bloody urine, lower back pain and bleeding from the semen. In the treatment, it is aimed to remove the tumor tissue by interventional or surgical methods depending on the size of the tumor in the patient.
At the same time, cases of controlled volumetric enlargement of the prostate gland in men can also be encountered. This prostate enlargement, called benign prostatic hyperplasia (Benign Prostatic Enlargement); Although it is not a malignant cancer disease, it is an important disease that the field of urooncology is interested in in terms of diagnosis and treatment. The main problem in this disease is that the prostate gland enlarges and narrows the urinary canal in a way that greatly reduces its function. The disease does not cause cancer and does not spread to surrounding tissues. However, it causes complaints such as difficulty urinating, frequent urination, dripping urination and burning during urination in patients. Enlarged prostate tissue may need to be removed from the body by interventional or surgical methods.
Testicular cancer may develop as a result of uncontrolled proliferation of various cell types that make up the testicular tissue. testicular cancer; It refers to a group of cancer subtypes that have different characteristics according to the cell type from which they originate. In this respect, seminomas originating from germ cells, embryonal carcinoma originating from developmental cells, yolk sac tumors, teratomas and Leydig and Sertoli cell tumors originating from testicular connective tissue are types of tumors classified as testicular tumors.
Testicular tumors can occur at any age, but they often develop in young men. In this sense, some genetic features may trigger testicular tumor formation. At the same time, these tumors; It can also be caused by environmental factors such as HIV infection and cryptorchidism (testicle remaining in the abdomen). It is recognized by symptoms such as swelling in the testis, pain felt in the testicle area or lower abdomen, bleeding from the semen, and breast tenderness. Surgical removal of the affected testicular tissue and drug therapy are essential in the treatment.
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