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Cervical Cancer
Cervical Cancer
16 May 2022
Cervical Cancer


Cervical cancer, also known as cervical cancer, is one of the 5 most common types of cancer in women, affecting an average of 500,000 people a year. Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cervix. With the evolution of the cell layer that will transform the uterine surface into abnormal cells, cells called 'Cancer Precursors' (CHIN) occur. Cancer precursors can cause cervical cancer if not detected and treated late. The main reason for this is the Human Papilloma virus known as 'HPV'. HPV is also known as a sexually transmitted virus that causes genital warts.


Cervical cancer is the result of mutations in the DNA of healthy cells in this region. Healthy cells divide and continue their lives in a certain order, and when the time comes, they leave their place in young cells. Due to mutations, this cell cycle is disrupted and cells begin to reproduce uncontrollably. An abnormal increase in cells causes structures known as masses or tumors to form. These structures are defined as cancer if they exhibit aggressive growth and malignant behavior, such as invading other organs and areas around and away.

HPV (Human papilloma virus) is present in an average of 99% of uterine cancers. HPV is a sexually transmitted disease and causes warfare in the genital area. It spreads between people after skin contact during sexual intercourse. There are over 100 types of HPV, most of which are considered low risk and do not cause uterine cancer. Twenty is the number of HPV types detected in relation to cancer. Most cases of cervical cancer 75 are caused by HPV-16 and HPV-18, which are commonly referred to as high-risk HPV types.

High-risk HPV types can cause cervical cell abnormalities or cancer. However, HPV is not the only source of cervical cancer. Most women with HPV carriers do not have cervical cancer. Certain risk factors, such as smoking, HIV, and age of first sexual experience, also increase the likelihood of developing cervical cancer for women with HPV. HPV infection of a person whose immune system is working properly can be cured by the body in an average of 2 years.


Cervical cancer may not show any symptoms in the early stages. But in general,

  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Vaginal fullness
  • Feeling of mass in the vagina
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Painful sexual intercourse is among the common symptoms.
  • Constipation
  • Bloody urine
  • Urine from the vagina
  • Feces from vagina
  • Urethral dilation
  • Kidney enlargement
  • Leg pain
  • Severe back pain
  • Severe groin pain
  • It manifests itself with disorders such as edema.


Cervical cancer, in its initial stage, may not cause significant complaints in patients. The first steps in the diagnostic approach after consulting a doctor are to take the sick person's history and perform a physical exam. The age at which the patient first interacted, whether he felt pain during sexual intercourse and whether there was bleeding after intercourse were questioned.

  • Whether the patient has had a sexually transmitted disease before,
  • Number of sexual partners
  • Detection of the presence of HPV or HIV in the individual before
  • use of tobacco products,
  • Whether there is a vaccine against HPV
  • menstrual pattern
  • Whether abnormal bleeding develops during menstrual periods constitutes other conditions that should be questioned.

Physical examination is the examination of the external and internal parts of the patient's genital structures. Presence of suspected lesions in genital examination is examined. Cervical screening test is known as pap smear test. If the abnormal cell is not diagnosed in this test by sampling, the result is considered normal. However, an abnormal evaluation of the test does not clearly indicate that the individual has cancer.

CIS is a general term used in the early stages of all cancer disorders. CIS is defined as stage 0 cervical cancer. In summary, CIS can be defined as cancer located only in the surface layer of the cervical neck and progressing deeper. If your doctor is concerned about cervical cancer or if abnormal cells are detected on a pap smear test, they may order a series of tests for further diagnosis.


The techniques used to treat cervical cancers are divided into 2 main groups as surgical techniques and radiotherapy techniques. Radiotherapy is a type of treatment that can be used at every stage of uterine cancer. However, the primary treatment method is radiotherapy in most advanced stages. In early-stage cancers, the surgical method is emphasized in the early stages, as the spread of the disease is much less. The aim of surgical treatment is to treat the primary tumor that develops in the uterus and possible areas of the disease where the disease is likely to spread. Depending on the size of the tumor, the surgical method varies from minor surgery to major surgery, in which the lymph nodes, uterus or all uterine glands are removed.

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